Updated by Tharcisse Nkanagu on 17.12.2012
The social security system currently comprises four separate national schemes, eight mutual societies and private schemes and one voluntary scheme run by employers. The two most important schemes are CNSS (Caisse nationale de Sécurité sociale) for the private sector and the CNOPS (Caisse nationale des Organismes de Prévoyance sociale) for the public sector. There are two smaller schemes, RCAR for local state employees and temporary workers and CMR (Caisse marocaine de Retraite) which administers a number of non-contributory pension schemes for, among others, old resistance fighters, civil and military invalidity pensions and some other 'special' payments which are being phased out. The main issue in Morocco is the restricted coverage of existing social security. The CNSS, the private sector scheme, provides retirement benefits for only 24 per cent of the economically active urban population, and all the funds together provide pensions for about two million people, only 26 per cent of the greater economically active population.
In terms of the extension of health insurance coverage, two measures have been planned for Morocco: a contributory scheme (AMO: Assurance Maladie obligatoire) for all employees, professionals and workers of the informal economy who earn more than 500 dirhams per month (around 50 euros); and a medical assistance scheme (RAMED: Medical Assistance scheme for the Economically Destituted) for poor people. The AMO health insurance scheme is being phased in over five years beginning in 2006 and will cover costs arising from illness, accident, maternity and rehabilitation. AMO will provide health insurance for 1.6 million wage earners in the private sector who are not currently covered. Together with others already participating in civil service and private schemes and mutual societies, the new system will provide health insurance for over 5 million people. The number of beneficiaries will be much greater than the number of employees registered with the different schemes because family members are also covered.
Pensions are, for the most part, very meagre: 73 per cent of retired people receive a pension that is less than the minimum wage (SMIG: salaire minimum interprofessionnel garanti). There are two indicators of the enormous gap that has to be bridged. First, 75 per cent of Moroccan workers do not have access to existing pension systems and 85 per cent of men and women, are excluded from health insurance because.
Effective social protection will depend on future strong economic growth needed to provide employment and ensure a good flow of contributions into insurance funds as well as the integration of the informal sector into social security systems in order to strengthen funding and to reduce vulnerability. Furthermore, as there remains a very uneven level of service provision, laws or regulations to harmonise the rights and obligations of contributors, beneficiaries and service providers are required.