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World Social Protection Report 2014/15: Building economic recovery, inclusive development and social justice

Updated by Christina Behrendt , Florence Bonnet , Anne Drouin on 29.11.2017

The World Social Protection Report 2014-15 is a comprehensive source of information on social protection systems, policy trends and social protection statistics.

The report:

  • provides a global overview of the organization of social protection systems, their coverage, benefits, and public expenditures;
  • following a life-cycle approach, presents social protection for children, women and men in working age, and older persons, including progress towards universal health coverage;
  • analyses recent policy trends, eg. negative impacts of fiscal consolidation and adjustment measures;
  • calls to expand social protection for crisis recovery, inclusive development and social justice.
 

Chapter 1 Introduction | Figures

Figure 1.1   Towards comprehensive social security systems: Number of areas covered in socialprotection programmes anchored in national legislation, 1900–2012
Figure 1.2   Development of social protection programmes anchored in national legislation by area (branch), pre-1900 to post-2005 (percentage of countries)

Social protection for children and families | Figures

Figure 2.1   Public expenditure on child and family benefits by region, and proportion of children aged 0–14 in total population, 201011 (percentage of GDP)
Figure 2.2   Public social protection expenditure on child and family benefits (excluding health), 201011 (percentage of GDP)
Figure 2.3   Overview of child and family cash benefit programmes anchored in national legislation, by type of scheme and groups covered, 201213
Figure 2.4  
Child/family allowances: Distribution of programmes anchored in legislation, by type of programme, 201113
Figure 2.5   Child/family allowances: Existence of programme anchored in legislation and main group(s) covered, by region, 2011–13 (percentage of countries)
Figure 2.6   Child/family allowances: Main sources of financing, 2011–13
Figure 2.7   Level of expenditure and proportion of population reached by non-contributory conditional cash transfer programmes in selected Latin American countries, latest available year (percentages)

Social protection for women and men of working age | Figures

3.1 Introduction: The quest for income security
Figure 3.1   Non-health public social protection expenditure for people of working age, and share of people of working age (15–64) in the total population, 201011
Figure 3.2   Non-health public social protection expenditure for people of working age, by national income (percentage of GDP), 201011
3.2 Unemployment protection
Figure 3.3  
Overview of unemployment protection schemes anchored in national legislation, by type of scheme and benefit, 201213
Figure 3.4  
Distribution of unemployment protection schemes worldwide by type of scheme, 201213
Figure 3.5  
Distribution of unemployment protection schemes worldwide by extent of legal coverage of the labour force, latest available year
Figure 3.6   Unemployment protection schemes: Extent of legal coverage, regional estimates, latest available year (percentage of labour force)
Figure 3.7  
Effective coverage of unemployment benefits: unemployed who actually receive cash benefits, regional estimates, 2007, 2009 and 201213 (percentages)
Figure 3.8  
Effective coverage of unemployment benefits: unemployed who actually receive cash benefits, latest available year (percentages)
Figure 3.9   Effective coverage of unemployment benefits: unemployed who actually receive cash benefits, latest available year (percentages)
Figure 3.10   Proportion of unemployed receiving unemployment benefits and relative poverty rates for the unemployed, selected European countries, 2012
Figure 3.11   Unemployed receiving unemployment cash benefits: All ages and youth, 201213 (percentages)
3.3. Employment injury protection
Figure 3.12   Employment injury protection: Distribution by type of programme, 201213
Figure 3.13  
Employment injury protection: Regional estimates of legal coverage (total and women), latest available year (percentage of labour force)
Figure 3.14   Employment injury protection: Legal and effective coverage, latest available year (percentage of labour force)
Figure 3.15   Employment injury protection: Replacement rates for permanent disability, 201213
Figure 3.16   Employment injury protection: Replacement rates for temporary disability, 201213
3.4 Disability benefits
Figure 3.17   Overview of cash disability benefit programmes anchored in national legislation, by type of programme and benefit, 201213
Figure 3.18  
Income support for persons with disabilities: Existence and type of programmes (201213)
Figure 3.19  
Europe: Persons with disabilities in working age and recipients of disability benefits, 2010
Figure 3.20  
Europe: Rates of poverty risk among those of working age (16–64) by disability status, 2010 (percentages)
3.5 Maternity protection
Figure 3.21   Maternity cash benefit schemes anchored in national legislation: Types of schemes, 2013
 
Figure 3.22   Legal (mandatory) coverage for maternity cash benefits: Women in employment protected by law for loss of income during maternity, latest available year (percentages)
Figure 3.23   Effective coverage for maternity cash benefits: Women in employment contributing to maternity cash benefits schemes or otherwise entitled to such benefits, latest available year (percentages)
Figure 3.24   Duration of paid maternity leave in national legislation, 2013 (weeks)
Figure 3.25   Level of maternity cash benefit as a proportion as previous earnings, 2013 (per cent)
Figure 3.26  
Antenatal care coverage by region, latest available year (percentage of live births)
Figure 3.27   Antenatal care coverage by social health protection coverage, latest available year
Figure 3.28   Inequities in access to maternal health services by wealth quintile and national income level, latest available year
Figure 3.29   Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births) and live births attended by skilled health personnel, according to national income level, 2011

Social protection for older women and men: Pensions and other non-health benefits | Figures

Figure 4.1   Sources of income of people aged 65 and over, OECD countries
Figure 4.2   Correlation between greater public pension provision and lower poverty levels, OECD countries
Figure 4.3   Overview of old-age pension schemes anchored in national legislation, by type of scheme, 201213
Figure 4.4   Non-health public social protection expenditure on pensions and other benefits for older persons, and share of older population (65 and above) in total population (201011)
Figure 4.5   Non-health public social protection expenditure on pensions and other benefits for older persons, 201011 (percentage of GDP)
Figure 4.6   Long-term care expenditure as a proportion of GDP, 2010 and projections for 2060 (percentages)
Figure 4.7   Old-age pensions: Extent of legal coverage, by region, latest available year (percentages)
Figure 4.8   Effective pension coverage ratios by region, latest available year (percentages)
Figure 4.9   Old-age pension beneficiaries as a proportion of the population above statutory pensionable age, latest available year (percentages)
Figure 4.10a  
Old-age pension beneficiaries as a proportion of the population above statutory pensionable age, (a) 2000 (percentages)
Figure 4.10b   Old-age pension beneficiaries as a proportion of the population above statutory pensionable age, (b) 2010–12 (percentages)
Figure 4.11  
Comparison of the proportion of older persons receiving a pension, 2000 and 2010–12 (percentages)
Figure 4.12   Proportions of women and men in employment contributing to a pension scheme by area of residence (percentages)
Figure 4.13   Proportions of women and men above statutory pensionable age receiving an old-age (or survivor’s) pension, by area of residence
Figure 4.14   Pensioners’ declining relative standard of living as a result of price indexation or no indexation (compared to standard of living with wage indexation = 100)
Figure 4.15   Average replacement rates at retirement in public pension schemes in 2010 and projected for 2060, selected European countries (percentages)
Figure 4.16   Minimum replacement rates necessary to guarantee pension income above the poverty threshold

Chapter 5 Towards universal coverage in health | Figures

Figure 5.1   Health coverage by region: Proportion of population affiliated to national health services, social, private or micro-insurance schemes, latest available year (percentages)
Figure 5.2   Global health coverage: Proportion of population affiliated to national health services, social, private or micro-insurance schemes, latest available year (percentages)
Figure 5.3   Legal health coverage and poverty, latest available year (percentages)
Figure 5.4   The global deficit in effective access to health services, 201112, by level of country income
Figure 5.5   Legal health coverage and out-of-pocket payments in selected African countries, 2011 (percentages)
Figure 5.6   Schematic overview of health financing mechanisms
Figure 5.7   Coverage mechanisms used by countries with legal health coverage rates of 80 per cent of the population or over, latest available year
Figure 5.8   Sources of health-care financing, by region, 2011 (percentage of GDP)
Figure 5.9   Share of out-of-pocket expenditure in total health expenditure, by proportion of the population living on less than US$2 a day PPP, 2011 (percentages)
Figure 5.10   Number of health workers required to close global and regional gaps in universal health coverage, ILO estimate, 2014
Figure 5.11   Yearly change in health workers’ remuneration as proportion of total health expenditure and GDP, by national income level, 2000–10 (percentages)

Expanding social protection: Building recovery, inclusive development and social justice | Figures

Figure 6.1   Social protection in stimulus packages, 2008–09 (percentage of total announced amount)
Figure 6.2   Number of countries contracting public expenditures (year on year), 2008–16, (a) relative to GDP and (b) in real terms
Figures 6.3a & 6.3b   Excessive fiscal contraction: Projected decline (a) in total government expenditure relative to GDP, and (b) in real government expenditure (2013¬–15 average over 2005–07 average, percentages)
Figures 6.4a - 6.4d   Public social protection expenditure as a percentage of GDP, real GDP and real per capita public social protection expenditure (index 100 = 2007): (a) world; (b) high-income countries; (c) middle-income countries; (d) low-income countries
Figures 6.5a & 6.5b   Trends in government and public social protection expenditure per capita (in constant prices): (a) 2007–09; (b) 2009–11
Figure 6.6   Expansion of social protection in middle- and low-income countries: Selected examples of new and expanded programmes, 2000–13
Figure 6.7   Support for the financial sector, fiscal stimulus packages and public debt increases, selected HICs, 2008–10 (US$ billions)
Figure 6.8   Increase in the proportion of the population at risk of poverty in 18 European countries between 2008 and 2012
Figure 6.9   Distribution of expenditure-based versus revenue-based fiscal consolidation plans in 30 OECD countries, 2009–15
Figure 6.10   The social and economic risks of fiscal consolidation

Figures 6.11a - 6.11d

  Trends in real public social protection expenditure, GDP, consumption and unemployment, 2007–201213: (a) United States; (b) Japan; (c) France; (d) EU-27
Figure 6.12   Contributions of various components to the growth of nominal gross disposable income of households, European Area 17 countries, 2000–12 (percentages)
Figure 6.13   Annual changes in disposable income, 2007–10, by income component, selected OECD countries (percentages)
Figure 6.14   Reduction in gross theoretical replacement rates of statutory pensions for average wage workers retiring at age 65 after 40 years of contributions, 2010–50 (percentage points of theoretical average wage)
Figure 6.15a - 6.15d   Public social protection and household final consumption expenditure, unemployment and GDP: Recent developments in the four EU countries under economic adjustment programmes, 2008–13: (a) Ireland; (b) Greece; (c) Portugal; (d) Cyprus
Figure 6.16   Poverty rates in OECD countries before and after taxes and social protection transfers, latest available year (around 2010)
Figure 6.17   Increase in public social protection expenditure, selected middle-income countries, 2000 to latest year (percentage of GDP)
Figure 6.18   Increase in social protection expenditure ratios, selected low-income countries, 2000 to latest year (percentage of GDP)
Figure 6.19   Total government expenditures in selected countries, 2013 (percentage of GDP)
Figure 6.20   Illicit financial flows (IFF) versus official development assistance (ODA), 2000–09 (current US$ billions)
Figure 6.21   Public social protection expenditure (percentage of GDP) and proportion of the population in poverty
Figure 6.22   Public social protection expenditure (per cent of GDP) and income equality (Gini coefficient), latest year
Figure 6.23   Schematic representation of some of the positive impacts of the extension of social protection on inclusive growth (short-term)
Figure 6.24   Schematic representation of some of the positive impacts of the extension of social protection on inclusive growth (longer-term)

Statistical annexes

Part A The demographic, economic and labour market environment


Demographic indicators
 
Table A.1
Demographic trends: Dependency ratios
Table A.2
Demographic trends: Ageing
Table A.3
Fertility, child and maternal mortality, life expectancy at birth
Table A.4
Life expectancy at 20 or 60 years old
 
 
 
 
Labour force and employment indicators
 
 
Tables A.5 - A.6
Labour force to population ratios at ages 15-64 yrs and 65+ yrs
Tables A.7 - A.8
Employment to population ratio at ages 15-24 yrs and 15+ yrs
Table A.9
Status in employment
Table A.10
Unemployment as a percentage of the labour force
 
 
 
 
Economic and  poverty indicators
 
 
Table A.11
Poverty and income distribution
Table A.12
GDP and HDI
 
 
 
 

Part B Social security coverage and expenditure

 
Table B.1 Ratification of ILO social security Conventions, by region
Table B.2 Overview of national social security systems

Unemployment
Table B.3 Unemployment: indicators of effective coverage. Unemployed who actually receive benefits (percentages)

Employment injury
Table B.4 Employment injury: Key features of main social security programmes

Maternity
Table B.5 Maternity: Key features of main social security programmes (cash benefits)

Old age effective coverage
Table B.6 Old-age pensions: Key features of main social security programmes
Table B.7 Non-contributory pension schemes: main features and indicators
Table B.8 Old-age effective coverage: active contributors (latest available year)
Table B.9 Old-age effective coverage: old-age pension beneficiaries (latest available year)

Health specific indicators
Table B.10 Total (public and private) health-care expenditure not financed by private household's out-of-pocket payments (percentage)
Table B.11 The multiple dimensions of health coverage 
 
 
 
Social security expenditure
Table B.12 Public social protection expenditure, 1990 to lastest available year (percentage of GDP)
Table B.13 Public social protection expenditure by guarantee, latest available year (percentage of GDP)