Social Protection

Building social protection floors and comprehensive social security systems

Glossary

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M

N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

ratification , ratification

It is a formal procedure whereby a state accepts the convention as a legally binding instrument and engages itself to make it part of its own domestic law, and to implement it as such. [wt]


re-entrant reintegrante, [FR: nd]

A person resuming payment of contributions to a scheme after a break. [ref. 8030]

recognition bond bono de reconocimiento, bon de reconnaissance

A government-issued bond recognizing the rights acquired by an individual contributor under a social security scheme that has been closed or transformed. Recognition bonds have been used to finance the transition costs of changing a defined-benefit PAYG social security pension scheme into a funded defined-contribution scheme. The bond value depends on the provisions of the closed scheme and the interest rate applied . Liquidation of the bond usually takes place on the date of retirement. [ref. 8030]

reference earnings ingreso de referencia, salaire de référence

Earnings specified by definition and amount , used in benefit formulae. Reference earnings usually refer to the average earnings over a specified period preceding the payment of the benefit. [ref. 8030]

reimbursement reembolso, remboursement

Benefit covering the actual cost of a good or service. Requires recipients to show evidence of expenditure (e.g. funeral costs, home care costs). [ref. 6622]

reimbursement of expenditures reembolsos de los gastos, remboursement des dépenses

Always considered as in-kind benefit. Furthermore, any cash payment which is not made directly to the protected person or to a dependant of a protected person is considered as in-kind benefit (e.g. payment to health care providers). [ref. 6622]

reinsurance , réassurance

A mechanism through which an insurer obtains insurance from a third party (the reinsurer) for all or a part of the risks it has undertaken to cover, in exchange for the payment of a premium. The contract concluded between an insurer and a reinsurer is called a reinsurance contract and may be thought of as the insurer's insurance coverage, or second-degree insurance. Reinsurance allows for the diversification of risks and their redistribution over a broader base, thereby reducing the insurer's risk of bankruptcy. [ref. 144]

replacement rate tasa de sustitución, taux de remplacement

Ratio of the amount of a (average/individual) benefit in period t to the (average/individual) amount of the insurable earnings in the same or any other suitably chosen period. The rate may be calculated gross or net of taxation.[ref. 8030]

reporting period período del informe, période de référence

A period of 12 months for which data are reported. This could either be a calendar year or, where this is not possible, another period such as a fiscal year. [ref. 6622]

representative sample , échantillon représentatif

A group of persons belonging to a segment of the population that displays the same characteristics as the overall population: same proportion of men and women and the same proportion of young, elderly, actively employed and unemployed persons, etc. The size of the representative sample must conform to minimum requirements, which depend upon the size of the target population and its homogeneity. [ref. 144]

reservation wage salario de reserva, salaire de réservation

The lowest amount of wages at which a benefit recipient is ready to give up his/her benefit and return to work. [ref. 8030]

reserve reserva, réserve

Net result of the accumulation of contributions, plus investment earnings, plus other revenue, less benefit payments, less administrative expenses, less other expenditure, under a scheme. [ref. 8030]

reserve fund , fonds de réserve

Own capital accumulated by the health micro-insurance scheme to meet future expenses, particularly those arising from unforeseen circumstances. The level of such funds is usually subject to regulatory provisions. [ref. 144]

Synonym: reserves

reserve ratio ratio de reservas, coefficient (taux) de réserves obligatoires

Ratio of the reserve at a given date to the amount of expenditure of a scheme during the previous period. [ref. 8030]

reserves , réserves

See: reserve fund

risk , risque

Refers to the probability that an uncertain event will occur, and, by extension, to an uncertain event that, when it does occur, may have adverse financial consequences. This is why individuals seek insurance against the financial consequences of certain risks. Insurance cannot prevent risks from occurring, but it can reduce their financial impact. The main social risks are sickness, disability, old age, unemployment, death, etc. [ref. 144]

risk management , prévoyance

An approach that consists of taking certain precautionary measures and organizing oneself in order to deal with the future occurrence of a risk.

Example: Stocking food supplies in anticipation of a drought or a shortage, saving for a wedding, etc. [ref. 144]

risk of over-prescription , risque de surprescription

A phenomenon according to which health providers adjust their prescriptions to correspond to patients' maximum level of coverage, without opposition from patients, given the fact that the latter know they are covered. Health providers may have a tendency to prescribe more medicines than necessary, lengthen hospital stays, systematically use diagnostic services, such as laboratory tests, X-rays, etc. [ref. 144]

risk pooling , mutualisation du risque

The principle according to which the financial consequences of individual risks are not borne by each individual but by an entire group. Risk pooling refers to the sharing of risks, which is the basic premise underlying insurance mechanisms. [ref. 144]

risk portfolio , portefeuille de risques

The whole group of covered persons, whose individual levels of coverage and consumption of health services vary from one person to the next and represent costs for the scheme. Schemes must ensure that their risk portfolio is well-balanced, that is, that the presence of high risks (persons who consume more health services than the average) is compensated by low risks (persons who consume fewer health services than the average). [ref. 144]

risk selection , sélection de risques

A measure or a set of measures that consist of giving priority to persons who represent a low risk of illness and excluding those with a high risk of illness. Risk selection may be practiced by certain insurers, particularly when they are unable to set rates that reflect individual risks.

Example: When an insurer establishes an age limit on enrolment or when it excludes members who have reached a certain age, it is practising risk selection.
Within the context of a capitation system (see global payment) some providers may have a tendency to give priority, in terms of treatment, to patients who represent a low risk of illness, who they know will not consume excessive amounts of health care, and to discourage those who represent a high risk. Health micro-insurance schemes must, of course, see to it that such practices do not arise. [ref. 144]

risk-free asset activo libre de riesgos, [FR: nd]

In theory , an asset that is guaranteed a rate of return.In practice, short-term government bonds are often considered risk-free. [ref. 8030]