Protección Social

Estableciendo pisos de protección social y sistemas integrales de seguridad social

Informe mundial sobre la protección social 2017 - 2019

Protección social Universal para alcanzar los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible

  • Una visión mundial de las tendencias recientes de los sistemas de protección social, incluidos los pisos de protección social (ODS 1.3);
  • La situación actual de la protección social de los niños, las mujeres y los hombres en edad de trabajar, de las personas con discapacidad y de los adultos mayores;
  • Datos mundiales, regionales y nacionales sobre la cobertura, prestaciones y gasto público;
  • Una base de referencia de 2015 para el seguimiento del indicadator 1.3.1 de los ODS.

Chapter 1 - Introduction | Figures

Figure 1.1   Towards comprehensive social security systems: Number of policy areas covered in social protection programmes anchored in national legislation, 1900–2015
Figure 1.2   Development of social protection programmes anchored in national legislation by policy area, pre-1900 to post-2010 (percentage of countries)
Figure 1.3  
SDG indicator 1.3.1: Percentage of the total population covered by at least one social protection benefit (effective coverage), 2015

 Chapter 2 - Social protection for children | Figures

Figure 2.1   Overview of child and family benefit schemes (periodic cash benefits), by type of scheme and benefit, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 2.2   Child and family cash benefit schemes, by type of scheme, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 2.3   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for children and families: Percentage of children and households receiving child and family benefits, by region, latest available year
Figure 2.4   Public social protection expenditure (excluding health) on children (percentage of GDP) and share of children 0–14 in total population (percentage), latest available year
Table 2.1  
Newly announced child and family social protection measures (selection), 2014–17

Chapter 3 - Social protection for women and men of working age | Figures

The quest for income security
Figure 3.1  
Public social protection expenditure (excluding health) on people of working age (percentage of GDP) and share of working-age population (15–64) in total population, (percentage), latest available year
Figure 3.2  
Public social protection expenditure (excluding health) on people of working age (percentage of GDP), by income level, latest available year
Maternity Protection
Figure 3.3  
Maternity cash benefit schemes, by type of scheme, 2015–16
Figure 3.4  
Maternity protection, legal coverage: Percentage of women in employment protected by law in case of loss of income during maternity, 2015 or latest available year 
Figure 3.5  
SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for mothers with newborns: Percentage of women giving birth receiving maternity cash benefits, by region, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 3.6   Maternity protection, effective coverage: Percentage of women in employment contributing to maternity cash benefits schemes or otherwise entitled to such benefits, 2015 or latest available year 
Figure 3.7  
Duration of paid maternity leave in national legislation, 2015 or latest available year (weeks)
Figure 3.8  
Level of maternity cash benefits as a percentage of previous earnings, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 3.9   Antenatal care coverage by region, latest available year (percentage of live births)
Figure 3.10   Births attended by skilled health personnel, latest available year (percentage)
Figure 3.11   Inequities in access to maternal health-care services, by wealth quintile, selected countries, latest available year (percentage)
Figure 3.12  
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births) and percentage of live births attended by skilled health personnel, 2015
Unemployment protection
Figure 3.13   Overview of unemployment protection schemes, by type of scheme and benefit, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 3.14   Unemployment protection schemes, by type of scheme, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 3.15   Unemployment protection, legal coverage: Percentage of the labour force covered by unemployment protection schemes, latest available year
Figure 3.16  
Unemployment benefits, legal coverage: Percentage of workers covered by unemployment protection schemes by region, latest available year
Figure 3.17  
SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for unemployed persons: Percentage of unemployed persons receiving unemployment cash benefits, latest available year
Figure 3.18  
SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for unemployed persons: Percentage of unemployed persons receiving unemployment cash benefits, latest available year
Figure 3.19   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for unemployed persons: Percentage of unemployed persons receiving cash benefits (contributory or non-contributory), latest available year
Figure 3.20   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for unemployed persons: Percentage of unemployed persons receiving unemployment cash benefits and share of unemployed aged 16–64 at risk of poverty, selected European countries, 2015
Employment injury protection
Figure 3.21   Employment injury protection schemes, by type of scheme, latest available year 
Figure 3.22   Employment injury protection, effective coverage: Active contributors to a scheme as a percentage of the labour force, selected countries, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 3.23   Replacement rates for permanent disability in employment injury protection schemes, selected countries, 2015 or latest available year (percentage)
Figure 3.24  
Replacement rates for temporary disability in employment injury protection schemes, selected countries, 2015 or latest available year (percentage)
Disability benefits
Figure 3.25   Overview of disability cash benefit schemes, by type of scheme and benefit, 2015
Figure 3.26   Disability benefit schemes, by type of scheme, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 3.27   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for persons with severe disabilities: Percentage of persons with severe disabilities receiving disability cash benefits, by region, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 3.28  
Impact of adjusting for disability-related costs on measured poverty rates, selected countries (percentage)

Chapter 4 - Social protection for older women and men: fighting poverty through pension systems | Figures

Figure 4.1   Overview of old-age pension schemes, by type of scheme and benefit, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 4.2   Old-age pensions, legal coverage: Percentage of the working-age population (15-64 years) covered by existing law under mandatory contributory and non-contributory old-age pensions, by region and type of scheme, latest available year
Figure 4.3   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for older persons: Percentage of persons above statutory pensionable age receiving a pension, by region, latest available year
Figure 4.4   Old-age pensions, effective coverage: Active contributors to pension schemes as a percentage of the labour force and working age, by region, latest available year 
Figure 4.5   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for older persons: Percentage of the population above statutory pensionable age receiving an old-age pension, 2000 and 2010–15
Figure 4.6   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for older persons: Comparison of the proportion of the population above statutory pensionable age receiving an old age pension, 2000 and 2010–16 (percentage)
Figure 4.7   Public social protection expenditure on pensions and other benefits, excluding health, for persons above statutory pensionable age (percentage of GDP), and share of older population 65 and above in total population (percentage), latest available year
Figure 4.8   Public social protection expenditure on pensions and other benefits, excluding health, for persons above statutory pensionable age, by country income level, latest available year (percentage of GDP)
Figure 4.9   Old-age pensions, effective coverage: Percentage of the labour force contributing to a pension scheme, by sex, latest available year
Figure 4.10  
SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for older persons: Percentage of the population above statutory pensionable age receiving an old-age pension, by sex, latest available year
Table 4.1  
Indexation methods
Figure 4.11   Average replacement rates at retirement in public pension schemes, selected European countries, 2013 and projected for 2060 (percentage)
Table 4.2   Government announcements of pension reforms (contraction), 2010–16
Table 4.3   Old-age pensions: Parametric reforms, selected countries, 2013–17

Chapter 5 - Towards universal health coverage | Figures

Figure 5.1   Percentage of global rural population without health protection by legislation, affiliation or health insurance, 2015
Figure 5.2   Rural/urban deficits in legal coverage by region, 2015 (percentage of population)
Figure 5.3   Global health workforce shortages in rural and urban areas
Figure 5.4   Populations in rural and urban areas without access to health services due to health workforce shortages (percentage)
Figure 5.5   OOP as a percentage of total health expenditure paid by rural populations, 2015
Table 5.1   Rural and urban OOP as a percentage of total health expenditure, selected countries, 2015
Figure 5.6   Deficits in health coverage and access to health care in rural and urban Cambodia, 2015
Figure 5.7   Deficits in health coverage and access to health care in rural and urban Nigeria, 2015
Figure 5.8   Distribution of the world’s population aged 65+, by region, 2013 (percentage) 
Figure 5.9   Gaps in legal LTC coverage, 2015 (percentage of total population)
Figure 5.10   Existing LTC workforce and shortages towards universal coverage by region, 2015
Figure 5.11   Population 65+ excluded from LTC due to workforce shortages, by region, 2015 (percentage)
Table 5.2   Overview of common organizational and financial approaches to providing for LTC
Table 5.3   Gaps in universal LTC protection in Ghana
Figure 5.12   Exclusion from health care due to workforce shortages in the health sector, by country level of income, 2014 (as a percentage of total population)
Figure 5.13   Employment size and composition in the global health protection supply chain, 2016 (percentage)
Figure 5.14   Current and future employment potential of paid and unpaid workers in health (HO) and non-health occupations (NHO) to achieve UHC (in millions, public and private employment, 2016 or latest available year)
Figure 5.15   Additional employment potential to achieve UHC by 2030, by region (thousands)
Table 5.4   Share of population (65+) experiencing OOP for LTC (home and institutional care), selected countries, 2015 (percentage) 
Table 5.5   Health protection measures announced, selected countries, 2014–17  

Chapter 6 - Monitoring progress in social protection: Regional trends | Figures

Africa
Figure 6.1  
SDG indicator 1.3.1: Percentage of population in Africa covered by at least one social protection benefit (effective coverage), 2015 or latest available year
Figure 6.2  
SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for children and families: Percentage of children and households in Africa receiving child and family cash benefits, 2015 or latest available year 
Figure 6.3  
SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for mothers with newborns: Percentage of women giving birth in Africa receiving maternity cash benefits, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 6.4  
SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for unemployed persons: Percentage of unemployed in Africa receiving unemployment cash benefits, latest available year
Figure 6.5  
SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for persons with severe disabilities: Percentage of persons with severe disabilities in Africa receiving disability cash benefit, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 6.6   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for older persons: Percentage of population above statutory pensionable age in Africa receiving an old-age pension, latest available year
Figure 6.7  
SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for vulnerable groups of population: Percentage of vulnerable populations in Africa receiving non-contributory cash benefits, 2015 or latest available year 
Figure 6.8  
Public social protection expenditure in Africa, excluding health, latest available year (percentage of GDP) 
Figure 6.9   Composition of social protection expenditure in Africa, excluding health, latest available year (percentage of GDP)
Americas
Figure 6.10   SDG indicator 1.3.1: Percentage of population in the Americas covered by at least one social protection benefit (effective coverage), 2015 or latest available year
Figure 6.11   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for children and families: Percentage of children and households in the Americas receiving child and family cash benefits, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 6.12   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for mothers with newborns: Percentage of women giving birth in the Americas receiving maternity cash benefit, 2015 or latest available year 
Figure 6.13  
SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for unemployed persons: Percentage of unemployed in the Americas receiving unemployment cash benefits, latest available year
Figure 6.14   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for persons with severe disabilities: Percentage of persons with severe disabilities in the Americas receiving disability cash benefit, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 6.15   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for older persons: Percentage of population above statutory pensionable age in the Americas receiving an old-age pension, latest available year 
Figure 6.16   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for vulnerable groups of population: Percentage of vulnerable populations in the Americas receiving non-contributory cash benefits, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 6.17  
Public social protection expenditure in the Americas, excluding health, latest available year (percentage of GDP)
Figure 6.18   Composition of social protection expenditure in the Americas, excluding health, latest available year (percentage of GDP)
Arab States
Table 6.1   Social protection schemes for private sector workers in the Arab States
Table 6.2   Schematic structure of social protection in the Arab States
Table 6.3   Accrual rates for the calculation of pensions and maximum amounts of pension, selected countries (percentage)
Figure 6.19   Old-age pensions, effective coverage: Percentage of the labour force contributing to a pension scheme in the Arab States, selected countries, latest available year
Figure 6.20   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for older persons: Percentage of population above statutory pensionable age in the Arab States receiving an old-age pension, selected countries, latest available year
Table 6.4   Employment injury protection, legal coverage: Percentage of the labour force covered by employment injury protection schemes, selected countries 
Figure 6.21   Public social protection expenditure, excluding health, in the Arab States, selected countries, latest available year (percentage of GDP)
Figure 6.22  
Composition of social protection expenditure, excluding health, in the Arab States, selected countries, latest available year (percentage of GDP)
Asia and the Pacific
Figure 6.23   SDG indicator 1.3.1: Percentage of population in Asia and the Pacific covered by at least one social protection benefit (effective coverage), 2015 or latest available year 
Figure 6.24   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for children and families: Percentage of children and households in Asia and the Pacific receiving child and family cash benefits, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 6.25   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for mothers with newborns: Percentage of women giving birth in Asia and the Pacific receiving maternity cash benefit, 2015 or latest available year 
Figure 6.26   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for unemployed persons: Percentage of unemployed in Asia and the Pacific receiving unemployment cash benefits, latest available year
Figure 6.27   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for persons with severe disabilities: Percentage of persons with severe disabilities in Asia and the Pacific receiving disability cash benefit, 2015 or latest available year 
Figure 6.28  
China: Expansion of old-age pension coverage, 2001–13
Figure 6.29   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for older persons: Percentage of population above statutory pensionable age in Asia and the Pacific receiving an old-age pension, latest available year 
Figure 6.30   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for vulnerable groups of population: Percentage of vulnerable populations in Asia and the Pacific receiving non-contributory cash benefits, 2015 or latest available year 
Figure 6.31   Public social protection expenditure, excluding health, in Asia and the Pacific, latest available year (percentage of GDP)
Figure 6.32   Composition of non-health social protection expenditure in Asia and the Pacific, excluding health, latest available year (percentage of GDP)
 
Europe and Central Asia
Figure 6.33   SDG indicator 1.3.1: Percentage of population in Europe and Central Asia covered by at least one social protection benefit (effective coverage), 2015 or latest available year
Figure 6.34   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for children and families: Percentage of children and households in Europe and Central Asia receiving child and family cash benefits, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 6.35   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for mothers with newborns: Percentage of women giving birth in Europe and Central Asia receiving maternity cash benefits, 2015 or latest available year 
Figure 6.36   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for unemployed persons: Percentage of unemployed persons in Europe and Central Asia receiving unemployment cash benefits, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 6.37  
SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for persons with severe disabilities: Percentage of persons with severe disabilities in Europe and Central Asia receiving disability cash benefits, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 6.38   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for older persons: Percentage of population above statutory pensionable age in Europe and Central Asia receiving an old-age pension, latest available year
Figure 6.39   SDG indicator 1.3.1 on effective coverage for vulnerable groups of population: Percentage of vulnerable population in Europe and Central Asia receiving non-contributory cash benefits, 2015 or latest available year
Figure 6.40   Public social protection expenditure, excluding health, in Europe and Central Asia, latest available year (percentage of GDP)
Figure 6.41   Composition of social protection expenditure, excluding health, in Europe and Central Asia, latest available year (percentage of GDP)

Chapter 7 - Monitoring progress in social protection: Global outlook | Figures

Figure 7.1   SDG indicator 1.3.1: Effective social protection coverage, global and regional estimates by area (percentage)
Figure 7.2   Public social protection expenditure, excluding health, latest available year (percentage of GDP) 
Figure 7.3   Extending social security coverage to the self-employed and workers in microenterprises: Number of registered monotax enterprises and insured members, Uruguay, 2006–13
Figure 7.4   Non-contributory pensions as a percentage of the national poverty line, single person, latest available year
Figure 7.5   Distribution of population by age group based on estimates and projections, 1950–2050 (percentage)
Figure 7.6   Number of countries contracting public expenditure in terms of GDP, 2008–20
Table 7.1  
Main adjustment measures considered by region, 2010–15 (number of countries)

Statistical annexes

Part A The demographic, economic and labour market environment


Demographic indicators
 
Table A.1
Demographic trends: Dependency ratios
Table A.2
Demographic trends: Ageing
Table A.3
Fertility, child and maternal mortality, life expectancy at birth
Table A.4
Life expectancy at 20, 60, 65 and 80 years old, exact age, both sexes (in years)
 
 
 
 
Labour force and employment indicators
 
 
Tables A.5 - A.6
Labour force to population ratios at ages 15-64, 15+ and 65+
Tables A.7 - A.8
Employment to population ratio at ages 15-24 and 15+ (latest available year)
Table A.9
Status in employment (latest available year)
Table A.10
Unemployment as a percentage of the labour force (latest available year)
 
 
 
 
Economic and  poverty indicators
 
 
Table A.11
Poverty and income distribution (latest available year)
Table A.12
GDP and Human Development Index (HDI), various years
 
 
 
 

Part B The demographic, economic and labour market environment

Table B.1
Ratification of ILO up-to date social security conventions, by region
Table B.2
Overview of national social security systems

Effective coverage (SDG indicator 1.3.1)
Table B.3
Social protection effective coverage (SDG indicator 1.3.1)

Children
Table B.4
Child and family benefits: Key features of main social security programmes and social protection effective coverage (SDG indicator 1.3.1 for children and families with children)

Maternity
Table B.5
Maternity: Key features of main social security programmes and social protection effective coverage (SDG Indicator 1.3.1. for mothers with newborns)

Unemployment
Table B.6
Unemployment: Indicators of effective coverage. Unemployed who actually receive benefits, 2000 to latest available year (SDG indicator 1.3.1 for unemployed)

Employment injury
Table B.7
Employment injury: Key features of main social security programmes

Disability Benefits
Table B.8
Disability benefits: Key features of main social security programmes and social protection effective coverage (SDG indicator 1.3.1 for persons with severe disabilities)

Old age
Table B.9
Old-age pensions: Key features of main social security programmes
Table B.10
Non-contributory pension schemes: Main features and indicators
Table B.11
Old-age effective coverage: Active contributors
Table B.12
Old-age effective coverage: Old-age pension beneficiaries (SDG indicator 1.3.1 for older pensions)

Health-specific indicators
Table B.13
Deficits in Universal Health Protection by Rural/Urban Areas (Global, Regional and Country Estimates)
Table B.14
The SDG gaps towards universal coverage in Long Term Care
Table B.15
Global estimates of current employment in the health economy and the employment potential of investments in UHC by 2030

Social protection expenditure
Table B.16
Public social protection expenditure, 1995 to latest available year (percentage of GDP)
Table B.17
Public social protection expenditure by guarantee (percentage of GDP)