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fiscal space

The availability of budgetary room that allows a government to provide resources for a desired purpose without any prejudice to the sustainability of a government’s financial position. [Heller, 2005 cited in ref. 23091]

social protection floor

The “Social Protection Floor” (SPF) is a basic set of social rights, services and facilities that every person should enjoy.

The United Nations suggests that a social protection floor could consist of two main elements that help to realize human rights:

  • services: geographical and financial access to essential services such as water and sanitation, health, and education;
  • transfers: a basic set of essential social transfers, in cash or in kind, to provide minimum income security and access to essential services, including health care. [Ref. 21960]

social security

The notion of social security covers all measures providing benefits, whether in cash or in kind, to secure protection, inter alia, from:

  • lack of work-related income (or insufficient income) caused by sickness, disability, maternity, employment injury, unemployment, old age, or death of a family member;
  • lack of access or unaffordable access to health care;
  • insufficient family support, particularly for children and adult dependants;
  • general poverty and social exclusion.

Social security schemes can be of a contributory (social insurance) or non-contributory nature. [ref.23091]