The availability of budgetary room that allows a government to provide resources for a desired purpose without any prejudice to the sustainability of a government’s financial position. [Heller, 2005 cited in ref. 23091]
The “Social Protection Floor” (SPF) is a basic set of social rights, services and facilities that every person should enjoy.
The United Nations suggests that a social protection floor could consist of two main elements that help to realize human rights:
- services: geographical and financial access to essential services such as water and sanitation, health, and education;
- transfers: a basic set of essential social transfers, in cash or in kind, to provide minimum income security and access to essential services, including health care. [Ref. 21960]
The notion of social security covers all measures providing benefits, whether in cash or in kind, to secure protection, inter alia, from:
- lack of work-related income (or insufficient income) caused by sickness, disability, maternity, employment injury, unemployment, old age, or death of a family member;
- lack of access or unaffordable access to health care;
- insufficient family support, particularly for children and adult dependants;
- general poverty and social exclusion.
Social security schemes can be of a contributory (social insurance) or non-contributory nature. [ref.23091]