Social Protection

Building social protection floors and comprehensive social security systems


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labour trabajo, travail

In economic theory , one of the two standard production factors.In statistical terms, it can be the numbers of members of the labour force or the volume of hours worked. [ref. 8030]

See: capital stock

labour force mano de obra, main d'oeuvre

See: economically active population

labour income share participación del ingreso del trabajo, [FR: nd]

Ratio of the total amount of remuneration paid to employees by employers to the total amount of aggregate income allocated to the production factors labour and capital . Remuneration includes gross wages , all types of employer-sponsored in-kind income of employees , as well as employer social security contributions. The labour income share and the capital income share by definition add up to 1. [ref. 8030]

Laffer curve (or modified laffer curve) curva de Laffer (o curva de Laffer modificada), courbe de Laffer (ou courbe de Laffer modifiée)

Describes the relationship between the amount of taxes collected and the GDP tax ratio. [ref. 8030]

level of coverage , niveau de prise en charge

Refers to the level of health expenses – incurred in connection with the utilization of a given health service – for which the scheme agrees to assume responsibility. The level of coverage may be expressed as a percentage of the health expenses actually incurred (for example, 65 per cent of expenses incurred for medical tests) or as a maximum amount or number of utilizations (for example, coverage of consultations up to a maximum limit of 1,000 Monetary Units (MUs) for each consultation). It may also combine the two terms (for example, coverage of 80 per cent of expenses, up to a maximum of four consultations per person and per year). [ref. 144]

level of health infrastructure , échelon des infrastructures sanitaires

All health infrastructures that share the same functions. Dispensaries, health posts, health centres and doctors' offices generally constitute the first level; provincial or area hospitals make up the second level; and regional or university hospitals account for the third level. A compulsory referral system often exists for transfers from one level of the pyramid to the next, but is not applied in the case of emergencies. [ref. 144]

Synonym: level of the health pyramid

See also: health pyramid, compulsory referral

linkages , articulations

Linkages refer to all types of partnership agreements between institutions, which aim to facilitate the access, management or financing of social security.
Institutions involved may include:

  • Other micro-insurance system(s);
  • Civil society organizations (local NGO, associations, etc.);
  • Micro-finance institutions;
  • Associations or federations of mutual health organizations;
  • Networks of cooperatives, trade unions;
  • Outsourced technical management providers such as Indian TPAs, public management centres, accounting experts;
  • Pharmaceutical industry or other industries;
  • Private or public insurance companies;
  • Social security funds;
  • Social assistance programmes;
  • Public health and prevention programs;
  • Local or national governments;
  • International cooperation (International NGO, United Nations, global social trust, global fund)

Linkages may include:

  • Subsidies and redistribution;
  • Financial consolidation (reinsurance, guarantee funds);
  • Technical support and advice;
  • Pooled management functions;
  • Support in enrolment and premium collection;
  • Information sharing and best practices;
  • Regulation and/or control;
  • Joint contractual agreements with healthcare providers or defining and establishing a contractual agreement framework;
  • Access to networks of healthcare providers;
  • Joint participation in defining and establishing national strategies for extending social protection (linkages at a political level) [wt]
liquidity ratio ratio de liquidez, ratio de liquidité

A financial indicator defined as the ratio of income or expenditure .The ratio reflects the financial situation of a scheme , which changes as it matures or for economic and labour market reasons. In funded schemes the development of the ratio over time may serve as an "early warning" indicator as it has implications for the structure of an investment portfolio, indicating how much of the portfolio must be kept or turned liquid in order to maintain regular payment of benefits. [ref. 8030]

logistical maturation curve curva logística de maduración, [FR: nd]

A tilted s-shaped curve with a horizontal asymptote following a logistical formula that can serve as a mathematical model for the maturation of a national social protection sheme or a social security scheme. [ref. 8030]

long-term benefits prestaciones de largo plazo, prestations à long terme

Types of benefit that are aimed at replacing earned income in the case of more or less permanent loss of earnings resulting from old age, disability or the death of the breadwinner (survivor benefits). [ref. 6622]

See also: short-term benefits

Lorenz curve curva de Lorenz, courbe de Lorenz

Graphical presentation of income inequality among a group of persons. Plots the cumulative income of a group of persons lined up from "poorest" to "richest". In practice, the application of the Lorenz curve often fails as data on personal income distribution are rare. [ref. 8030]

loss , perte

The difference between income and expenditure for a given accounting period, where expenditure exceeds income. Depending upon legislation and the legal status of the organization, other terms, such as "deficit", may be used. [ref. 144]

lump sums pagos de cuantía fija, versements uniques

One-time capital payments to members of a scheme designed to provide only capital sums upon the retirement, invalidity or death of a protected person (i.e provident funds). [ref. 6622]