Social Protection

Building social protection floors and comprehensive social security systems

Glossary

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M

N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

parental leave licencia parental, congé parental

Leave granted to parents of young children for child care (usually several months or years). [ref. 6622]

partial unemployment benefits , indemnisation de chômage partiel

Partial unemployment benefits are paid for employees who are working in enterprises that due to specified (economic, cyclical, seasonal) conditions shortened working hours. The loss of income (of the hours worked less) is partialy compensated (50-70%) by either the unemployment scheme, the state budget or both. [wt]

Synonym: reduced working hour compensation

past insurance credits , crédits passés d'assurance

The total number of yearly/monthly/weekly contributions or periods of service which have been paid on behalf of an insured person or have been credited to the person from his/her entry into the scheme to the valuation date. [ref. 776]

paternity leave licencia de paternidad, congé de paternité

Leave granted to new fathers as an equivalent to maternity leave in order to allow the new father to spend time with his newborn baby after birth (usually several days or weeks). [ref. 6622]

patient , patient

An individual who utilizes health services: medical consultations, medicines, laboratory tests, surgical operations, deliveries, etc. [ref. 144]

pay-as-you-go (cost) rate tasa de sistema de reparto, taux du système par répartition

The ratio of total annual expenditure of a scheme to the annual sum of insurable earnings underlying the scheme. It reflects the contribution rate to be charged annually if a scheme were financed on a pure annual assessment (PAYG) basis. [ref. 8030]

Synonym: PAYG (cost) rate

pension pensión, pension

A periodic benefit that replaces earned income. In many cases, this term is used to refer to long-term periodic benefits. [ref. 6622]

See also: long-term benefits

pensioner pensionista, pensionné

Beneficiary of a pension. [ref. 6622]

See also: pension

percentage co-payment , ticket modérateur

The share of the cost of a covered health service that is not borne by a health micro-insurance scheme and is always expressed as a percentage. The percentage co-payment helps moderate the consumption of health care and reduces the scheme's expenses. It is an effective means of combating moral hazard, but, when too high, may have the effect of limiting the accessibility of health care. [ref. 144]

performance indicators indicadores de resultados, indicateurs de performance

Attempt to measure the performance of the administration , benefit delivery or financial performance of a social transfer scheme or system in quantitative terms, either in absolute terms or by comparison to defined benchmarks. [ref. 8030]

periodic cash benefits paid on a regular basis prestaciones en metálico de pago periódico con carácter regular, préstations periodiques en espèce versées sur une base régulière

Benefits that are provided during a given time period, recurring at regular intervals (generally on a weekly, monthly or quarterly basis, e.g. old age pensions) and whose main "raison d'être" is to provide income replacement by restoring, up to a reasonable level, income which is lost by reason of inability to work. In contrast, other cash benefits are generally paid at irregular intervals or once for each occurrence (e.g. funeral grant), whose primary aim is that of providing cash assistance and not of providing income replacement. [ref. 6622]

periodic family/dependant supplements suplemento periódico a la familia/dependientes, complément périodiques familiaux/personnes à charge

Supplements paid to beneficiaries of a social security scheme in order to cover the needs of their dependants (e.g. spouses, children). If possible, such supplements should be recorded as separate benefits under the main function family and children (i.e family allowances paid to old-age pension beneficiaries). [ref. 6622]

plowback rate tasa de reinversión, [FR: nd]

The share of profits not paid out as dividends but reinvested in a company. [ref. 8030]

portfolio cartera, portefeuille

Composition of a basket of financial assets. [ref.8030]

poverty gap vacío de la pobreza, écart de pauvreté

A measure of the "depth" or "intensity" of poverty , defined as the average difference betwen the income of poor people and the poverty line. The aggregate poverty gap is the sum of all these differences in a country. That amount is generally related to GDP ( the relative aggregate poverty line). [ref. 8030]

See also: poverty line

poverty line línea de la pobreza, seuil de pauvreté

The level of income defining the borderline between the groups of "poor" and "non-poor" in a society. If a person/household has less than this amount at his/its disposal, the person/household is defined as being poor. There are different (absolute, relative and subjective) approches in estimating the poverty line. [ref. 8030]

poverty rate tasa de pobreza, [FR: nd]

The proportion of people in a group or a population with income under the poverty line. [ref. 8030]

Synonym: poverty headcount index

premium , cotisation

A fixed sum paid periodically by a member of a health micro-insurance scheme in order to benefit from the services provided by the scheme and to enable his or her dependents to benefit from them. The amount of the premium paid by a family may depend upon the number of persons protected, their characteristics (age, sex, place of residence, occupation) and the level of their family income. Premiums constitute the chief financial resource of the scheme and must enable it to cover its costs. These include expenditures related to the coverage of health expenses, operating costs, accumulation of financial reserves, etc.

The premium paid by a member is equal to the sum of the premiums calculated for each health service. The individual premium corresponding to a given health service is itself the sum of several elements, including the adjusted pure premium, the safety loading, the unit operating costs and the unit surplus. [ref. 144]

premium allocation , émission de cotisations
premiums (pure premium, risk premium, commercial premium, total premium) , primes (pure, de risque, commerciale, totale)
  • pure premium refers to the average amount of health expense, that is, the statistical cost of the risk before applying the safety loading;
  • risk premium refers to the sum of three elements: the adjusted pure premium, the safety loading and unit operating costs (or management costs);
  • total premium before tax refers to the sum of the risk premium and the unit surplus;
  • total premium inclusive of tax refers to the sum of the total premium and taxes. Inasmuch as health micro-insurance schemes generally do not pay taxes on insurance, the total premium inclusive of tax is equal to the total premium before tax. [ref. 144]

prepayment prepago, prépaiement

A set of mechanisms enabling individuals to pay for future health services at a time when they have sufficient resources available. [ref. 144]

See: health savings

prescribed prescrito, prescrit

Determined by or in virtue of national legislation. [ref. 6622]

prevalence rate , taux de prévalence

The number of cases of a given disease as compared to all cases of disease and expressed as a percentage.

Example: If 15 per cent of the cases of disease registered by a health facility correspond to cases of malaria, then the prevalence rate of malaria is 15 per cent. [ref. 144]

price distortion distorsión de precios, distortion entre les prix

The result of any exogenous interference with the functioning of markets (e.g goods and services markets, labour markets, financial markets) leading to a non-temporary significant deviation from the market-cleaning price (i.e the price that would exist without such intervention). [ref. 8030]

price index índice de precios, indice des prix

A price index is an average of the proportionate changes in the prices of a specified set of goods and services between two points (periods) in time O and t. The two most commonly used indices are the Laspeyres and the Paasche indices. Both are defined as weighted averages of price relatives, the weights being the values of the individual goods and services in the "base" period 0 (Laspeyres) or the "current" period t (Paasche) compared. A price relative is the ratio of the price of good or service in t to the price of the same good or service in period 0. [ref. 8030]

See also: deflatos

primary health care , soins de santé primaires

A health development strategy based on improving the quality of health services at the first level of the health pyramid, extending health services (from curative treatment to prevention and promotion) and encouraging the public to participate in the management and cost of health services. [ref. 144]

primary market mercado primario, [FR: nd]

Financial market on which financial instruments are issued for the first time. Main function is to raise cash for deficit units (companies, State). [ref. 8030]

See also: initial public offerings

prior agreement , entente préalable

A control mechanism applied prior to the receipt of health services by patients who are members of a health micro-insurance scheme. Before receiving care, patients must ask health providers to complete a request for prior agreement, which specifies the type of care and its cost. Patients must then submit this request to the health micro-insurance scheme, which considers the case and issues either an agreement or a refusal to provide coverage. This procedure enables schemes to exercise a degree of control over the services provided and the fees charged by health care providers, inasmuch as schemes reserve the right to refuse requests. The prior agreement is generally used for costly but non-urgent services, such as the provision of eyeglasses or planned surgical operations. [ref. 144]

private sector employee empleado del sector privado, employé du secteur privé

Employees of businesses owned by private investors as opposed to governments. This includes informal sector employees. [ref. 6622]

probability , probabilité

The odds that an individual in a given population will fall ill at least once in the course of a year (probability of falling ill) or of using a particular health service at least once in the course of a year (probability of utilizing a service). The probability of an occurrence is always greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to one. The closer the probability of an event is to zero, the more rare the event (illness, utilization of a health service). Conversely, when the probability of an occurrence approaches one, that occurrence is commonplace. A probability of one corresponds to a certain occurrence. [ref. 144]

procedure (management ~) , procédure (de gestion)

A rule or a set of rules followed in order to conduct all or part of a process. There are different types of procedures, including management and monitoring procedures.

Example of a management procedure: Prior to accepting an application for membership, it is important to verify that the applicant, that is, the future member, has not already been terminated by the health micro-insurance scheme in the past. [ref. 144]

produced assets activos producidos, [FR: nd]

Non-financial assets comprising tangible fixed assets (dwellings, non-residential buildings and other structures, transport equipment and other machinery, livestock, vineyards, orchards and other plantations of trees), intangible fixed assets (mineral exploration, computer software, entertainment, literary or artistic originals and other intangibles), inventories (materials and supplies, work in progress, finished goods for resale) and valuables (precious metals and stones, antiques and other art objects and other valuables ).  [ref. 8030]

See also: non-produced assets

production factor factor de producción, facteur de production

In economic theory, a factor producing (in combination with others) an economic entity's outpout. On the domestic level the production factor can be the labour force or the capital stock (of produced and non-produced assets) which - combined via a production function - produce domestic income (for example, GDP).In order to explain long-term growth patterns other production factors have been distinguished in economic theory, among them most prominently exogenous and endogenous "technological progress". [ref. 8030]

productivity productividad, [FR: nd]

Output produced per unit of factor-input. Economic theory distinguishes between labour productivity , capital productivity and total factor productivity. A simple approach widely used for measuring labour productivity on a microeconomic level is dividing real GDP by the total amount of employed. The measurement of capital productivity is often hampered by the absence of capital stock statistics (which require maintaining investment-related and other data over extemely long periods).  [ref. 8030]

provident fund fondo de previsión, fonds de prévoyance

A fully funded, defined-contribution scheme in which funds are managed by the public sector. [ref. 776]

public pension scheme régimen público de pensión, régime de pension public

Pension scheme administered by a public entity. [ref. 8030]

public sector employee empleado del sector público, employé du secteur public

Employee in national government, local government, government-owned or controlled corporation or government monetary institution. [ref. 6622]

pure premium , prime pure

The estimated average health expenses covered by a health micro-insurance scheme that correspond to each individual. The pure premium is used as an input in determining the insurance premium.

The pure premium may be calculated by applying the following general formula: Pure premium (health service) = Probability of using the service × Average quantity covered × Average unit cost. It may also be calculated by applying the specific formula: Pure premium (health service) = Frequency of utilization of the service × Average unit cost. [ref. 144]