Sources: ILO, World Social Protection Database, based on SSI; ISSA/SSA, Social Security Programs Throughout the World; ILOSTAT, ECLAC, IMF, WHO, WB, UNDP, UNICEF, completed with national data sources.


      Effective coverage:

  • Population covered by at least one social protection cash benefit (effective coverage): Proportion of the total population receiving at least one contributory or non‑contributory cash benefit, or actively contributing to at least one social security scheme.
  • Children: Ratio of children/households receiving child/family cash benefits to the total number of children/households with children.
  • Mothers with newborns: Ratio of women receiving maternity cash benefits to women giving birth in the same year.
  • Persons with severe disabilities: Ratio of persons receiving disability cash benefits to the number of persons with severe disabilities.
  • Unemployed: Ratio of recipients of unemployment cash benefits to the number of unemployed persons.
  • Older persons: Ratio of persons above statutory retirement age receiving an old-age pension to the number of persons above statutory retirement age (including contributory and non-contributory).
  • Vulnerable persons covered by social assistance: Ratio of social assistance recipients to the total number of vulnerable persons (defined as all children plus adults not covered by contributory benefits and persons above retirement age not receiving contributory benefits (pensions).


  • Government expenditure on social protection: includes expenditure on services and transfers provided to individual persons and households and expenditure on services provided on a collective basis.
  • Expenditure on healthcare: public sources include domestic revenue as internal transfers and grants, transfers, subsidies to voluntary health insurance beneficiaries, NPISH or enterprise financing schemes as well as compulsory prepayment and social health insurance contributions. All these transfers and subsidies represent public sources for health and indicate the overall share of government funding for health.